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Thread: Installing Fail2Ban on Linux to prevent various bad bots, attacks and bruteforce

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Mar 2013

    Installing Fail2Ban on Linux to prevent various bad bots, attacks and bruteforce

    About Fail2Ban

    Fail2Ban is useful tool which works with Linux log files and IPTables firewall to temporarily block IPs that doing suspicious actions like too many login attempts, too frequent connections, suspicious HTTP requests etc.

    By default Fail2Ban after installation don't blocks anything and is stopped. But we can configure it further.

    Official website (downloads, manuals, etc):

    The super summarized install:
    A) yum install fail2ban;
    B) sudo apt-get install fail2ban;sudo systemctl enable fail2ban
    2) echo -e "# cat /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/sshd.local\n[DEFAULT]\nbantime = 86400\nmaxretry = 5\n\n[sshd]\n\nenabled = true\nfilter = sshd\naction = iptables[name=SSH, port=ssh, protocol=tcp]\nmaxretry = 5" > /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/sshd.local
    A) service fail2ban restart;tail /var/log/fail2ban.log
    B) /etc/init.d/fail2ban restart;tail /var/log/fail2ban.log
    4) your fail2ban is running and protecting SSH from brute-force login attempts + it is starting at boot. Congrats.
    The summarized installation:
    1) install by command:
    A) yum install fail2ban
    B) sudo apt-get install fail2ban
    2) Create file with SSH protection, maximum 5 login tries then ban for 24 hours:
    echo -e "# cat /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/sshd.local\n[DEFAULT]\nbantime = 86400\nmaxretry = 5\n\n[sshd]\n\nenabled = true\nfilter = sshd\naction = iptables[name=SSH, port=ssh, protocol=tcp]\nmaxretry = 5" > /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/sshd.local
    3) Now restart fail2ban to reflect changes made:
    A) service fail2ban restart
    B) /etc/init.d/fail2ban restart
    4) finished, you have fail2ban running and also launching on server boot. Great
    Fail2Ban installation detailed

    Redhat/centos : yum install fail2ban - In my case "rpmforge" repository is required. But "yum install epel-release -y" should be better. In this tutorial can be found on how to install it.

    Debian/Ubuntu sudo apt-get install fail2ban

    After installation, fail2ban service is probably stopped. To start it, you can do: service fail2ban start OR /etc/init.d/fail2ban start
    F2B is probably set to start at server boot, if not, you can set it so: update-rc.d fail2ban defaults


    Basic configuration file: /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf

    Its recommended to create a new file with .local extension which will instantly have priority above old jail.conf (rules in common = .local file has priority. Non existing rules in .local =.conf is used).

    So lets copy default jail.conf to jail.local: cp /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf /etc/fail2ban/jail.local

    And open our fail2ban config file: vi /etc/fail2ban/jail.local , it contain so called Jails (short rules?): there you can see 2 jails:


    enabled = false
    filter = sshd
    action = iptables[name=SSH, port=ssh, protocol=tcp]
    sendmail-whois[name=SSH, [email protected], [email protected]]
    logpath = /var/log/sshd.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = false
    filter = proftpd
    action = iptables[name=ProFTPD, port=ftp, protocol=tcp]
    sendmail-whois[name=ProFTPD, [email protected]]
    logpath = /var/log/proftpd/proftpd.log
    maxretry = 6
    These Jails has few variables: enabled/disabled, filter, action, sendmail-whois, logpath, maxretry .
    "Filter" is the file in ./filter.d/ which contains precreated footprints. Based on these footprints, the server logs are checked and if some IP produces too much of unwanted messages/footprints during "findtime = 600" seconds, it is banned for "bantime = 600" seconds.

    In jail.local there are 4 main variables:
    findtime = 600
    bantime = 600
    maxretry = 3

    To enable some jail, just change "Enabled" variable value from "false" to "true". Dont forget to check that Jail"s value of "logpath" is really existing on your server, else fail2ban wont see any messages comming (non existing file).

    Fail2Ban filter files from /filter.d/* can be tested against log files like this:
    fail2ban-regex /var/log/logfilename /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/filterfileyouwanttouseintotest.conf
    Discover your computer IP ( and paste it into "ignoreip" variable in jail.local:
    ignoreip = youriphere
    To start editing in Vi editor, hit "a" key. To stop editing "Ctrl+C", to save changes ":wq", to discard changes "q!".

    After changes saved, you can restart Fail2ban: service fail2ban restart OR /etc/init.d/fail2ban restart


    Fail2Ban Filters

    These are the Fail2Ban ready made filters in /etc/fail2ban/filter.d:

    These are the mentioned footprints of Example sshd.conf file:
    failregex = ^%(__prefix_line)s(?:error: PAM: )?Authentication failure for .* from <HOST>\s*$
    ^%(__prefix_line)s(?:error: PAM: )?User not known to the underlying authentication module for .* from <HOST>\s*$
    ^%(__prefix_line)sFailed (?:password|publickey) for .* from <HOST>(?: port \d*)?(?: ssh\d*)?\s*$
    ^%(__prefix_line)sROOT LOGIN REFUSED.* FROM <HOST>\s*$

    Fail2Ban log file:
    tail /var/log/fail2ban.log
    grep fail2 /var/log/{messages,syslog}
    This is interesting fail2ban.local file!

    # "ignoreip" can be an IP address, a CIDR mask or a DNS host
    ignoreip =
    bantime = 600
    maxretry = 3

    # "backend" specifies the backend used to get files modification. Available
    # options are "gamin", "polling" and "auto".
    # yoh: For some reason Debian shipped python-gamin didn't work as expected
    # This issue left ToDo, so polling is default backend for now
    backend = polling

    # Destination email address used solely for the interpolations in
    # jail.{conf,local} configuration files.
    destemail = root@localhost

    # Default action to take: ban only
    action = iptables[name=%(__name__)s, port=%(port)s]


    enabled = true
    port = ssh
    filter = sshd
    logpath = /var/log/auth.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = true
    port = http
    filter = apache-auth
    logpath = /var/log/apache*/*error.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = false
    port = http
    filter = apache-noscript
    logpath = /var/log/apache*/*error.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = false
    port = ftp
    filter = vsftpd
    logpath = /var/log/auth.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = true
    port = ftp
    filter = proftpd
    logpath = /var/log/auth.log
    failregex = proftpd: \(pam_unix\) authentication failure; .* rhost=<HOST>
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = false
    port = ftp
    filter = wuftpd
    logpath = /var/log/auth.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = false
    port = smtp
    filter = postfix
    logpath = /var/log/mail.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = true
    port = pop3
    filter = courierlogin
    failregex = courierpop3login: LOGIN FAILED.*ip=\[.*:<HOST>\]
    logpath = /var/log/mail.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = true
    port = imap2
    filter = courierlogin
    failregex = imapd: LOGIN FAILED.*ip=\[.*:<HOST>\]
    logpath = /var/log/mail.log
    maxretry = 5


    enabled = true
    port = smtp
    filter = sasl
    failregex = warning: [-._\w]+\[<HOST>\]: SASL (?:LOGIN|PLAIN|(?:CRAM|DIGEST)-MD5) authentication failed
    logpath = /var/log/mail.log
    maxretry = 5
    above file is NOT good for centos it has another log file names (/apache*/ -> /httpd/ ; auth.log -> secure ; ...)

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Mar 2013

    Is this useful / helpfull? Yes | No
    This may help auto block IPs that frequently load website index ( / ) over and over again:

    add this into jail.local (new file .. has priority over jail.conf)

    vi /etc/fail2ban/jail.local


    enabled = true
    filter = apache-toomanyrequests
    action = iptables-multiport[name=ApacheTooManyRequests, port="http,https"]
    sendmail-buffered[name=ApacheTooManyRequests, lines=5, [email protected]]
    logpath = /var/log/httpd/access_log
    findtime = 60
    bantime = 240
    maxretry = 50
    and part of my filter ./filter.d/apache-toomanyrequests.conf file:

    (vi /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/apache-toomanyrequests.conf)


    failregex = [[]client <HOST>[]] File does not exist: .*/~.*
    (<HOST>)\s(\S+)\s(\S+)\s\[([^\]]+)\]\s"GET / HTTP/1.0"\s(\S+)\s(\S+)\s"([^"]*)"\s"([^"]+)"

    # any apache line (<HOST>)\s(\S+)\s(\S+)\s\[([^\]]+)\]\s"(\S+)\s([^\s]+)\s([^"]+)"\s(\S+)\s(\S+)\s"([^"]*)"\s"([^"]+)"

    ignoreregex =

    how it works? When visitor loads my website, the log entry (line of text) is added to the /var/log/httpd/access_log file, like: - - [16/Nov/2013:21:32:39 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.0" 200 666 "" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; en-US; Gecko/20041027 Mnenhy/"
    if above mentioned regex match the log line, the IP is saved and if it is in log file 50 times in last 60 seconds, it means possible attack, so it is blocked for 240 seconds by Fail2Ban which im using.

    Another jails:

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